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Symbiotic intro

Symbiotic is a shared security protocol that serves as a thin coordination layer, empowering network builders to control and adapt their own (re)staking implementation in a permissionless manner.


The protocol’s flexible and credibly neutral design brings unique benefits to network participants:

  • Flexibility through Modularity

    Networks control all aspects of their (re)staking implementation, including collateral assets supported, node operator selection mechanics, rewards, slashing, and associated resolving mechanisms. All participants can flexibly opt in and out of shared security arrangements coordinated through Symbiotic.

  • Risk Minimization through Immutability

    Non-upgradeable core contracts on Ethereum remove external governance risks and single points of failure. Our simple yet flexible contract design minimizes execution layer risks.

  • Capital Efficiency through Restaked Collateral and Reputation-Based Curation

    A permissionless, multi-asset, and network-agnostic design enables scalable and capital-efficient sourcing of economic security. An evolving operator-centric cross-network reputation system will further enhance capital efficiency for network builders.

Components of the Symbiotic Protocol

The Symbiotic protocol consists of 5 interconnected components:


Collateral (aka stake, commitments,…)

The security layer of Symbiotic. Collateral is an abstraction used to represent underlying on-chain assets, which are chain- and asset-agnostic. Collateral in Symbiotic can encompass ERC20 tokens, withdrawal credentials of Ethereum validators, or other on-chain assets, such as LP positions, without limitations regarding which blockchains the positions are held on.

Vaults (aka operator staking pools, liquid (re)staking protocols,…)

The (re)staking layer of Symbiotic. Delegation of collateral to operators across networks is handled by vaults that can be curated in a custom manner (e.g., by liquid (re)staking providers, such as Lido or institutional holders) or through delegations to operator-specific vaults.

Operators (aka validators, sequencers, guardians, keepers,…)

Operators in Symbiotic are defined as entities running infrastructure for networks. In Proof-of-Stake, successful staking providers have established a brand identity and operate across networks. The Symbiotic protocol creates a registry of operators, as well as enabling them to opt-in to networks and receive economic backing from restakers through vaults.

Resolvers (aka slashing committees, proofs, dispute resolution frameworks,…)

Resolvers are entities or contracts tasked to pass or veto slashing penalties incurred by operators on networks to which they provide services. They are agreed upon by vaults - representing providers of economic security - and the networks they provide security for.

Resolvers can be fully automated (in the case of objectively provable slashing infractions) or take the form of entities such as slashing committees and external dispute resolution frameworks. Resolvers enable networks and restakers to share collateral amongst each other by providing a - ideally neutral - third party to arbitrate penalties.

Networks (aka appchains, rollups, AVSs,…)

Networks in Symbiotic are defined as protocols that require a distributed set of node operators to provide trust-minimized services, such as - among others - decentralized sequencing of transactions, coming to consensus about off-chain data and bringing it on-chain (oracles), automating specific protocol functions (keepers), etc.

Symbiotic enables network builders to define, control, and adapt their methodology for onboarding, incentivizing, and penalizing operators and their delegators (providers of economic collateral).